Other arboviruses

Arboviruses of interest in Livestock (see also Bovine ephemeral fever, BEF)




Bluetongue virus (BTV)

Primarily the biting midge Culicoides brevitarsis. Other Culicoides species have been shown to play a role in the transmission of BTV however their distribution is largely restricted to areas where rainfall exceeds 800mm.

Primarily cattle and buffalo although these, as well as goats and deer, rarely suffer clinical signs. Sheep are most susceptible to disease although sheep are rarely infected in Australia and disease has never been seen in the Australian sheep flock.

Akabane virus (AKA)

Primarily the biting midge Culicoides brevitarsis. Other vectors may be involved

Cattle, sheep, goats

Kunjin virus

Primarily the mosquito Culex annulirostris

Primarily horses


Assumed to be biting midges Culicoides brevitarsis and C. wadai.

Cattle, buffalo, sheep, goats, camels and deer

Enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL)

Possibly stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans but as yet unconfirmed.


The National Arbovirus Monitoring Program (NAMP) is responsible for monitoring the distribution of BTV, AKA and BEF in Australia.

Figure 1. Biting midges, Culicoides brevitarsis, are vectors for bluetongue virus. Image courtesy of Leanne Nelson Queensland Department of Agriculture and Fisheries.