Online learning—Treatment

This section describes chemical options, application methods and safety when applying preventative or treatment products for flystrike.

Structured reading

For those who like to see all the information and simply read through it in order. Each heading is a link to a page of information—the dot point provides a summary of the page.
Tip: Keep this page open and open the links in new tabs.

Choosing the right chemical
A description of the chemical groups

Organophosphates
Information about Ops as lice or fly treatments.

Insect Growth Regulators
Information about IGRs as lice or fly treatments.

Ivermectin
Information about Ivermectin as lice or fly treatments.

Choosing the right application method
Overview of application methods.

Jetting
Advantages and disadvantages of hand jetting and automatic jetting races.

Hand jetting
Describes the correct procedure for hand jetting.

Automatic jetting races
​Describes the correct procedure for use of automatic jetting races.

Spray-ons
Advantages, disadvantages and technique for spray-on applications.

Dipping
Advantages, disadvantages and technique for dipping.

Occupational health and safety (OH&S)
Describes safe practices when using flystrike treatments.

Treatment of struck sheep
Recommended procedures for treating flystruck sheep.

Insecticide resistance
Management strategies to minimise or delay insecticide resistance to flystrike chemicals.

Video: best practice hand jetting with the Dutjet wand. (4.6 MB)

Video: best practice use of automatic jetting race. (2.5 MB)

 

Question and answer

For those who prefer a problem based approach to learning, answer the following questions.
Each of the questions below links further down the page to the answers.

Please download and view the two videos before proceeding to questions:
Video: best practice hand jetting with the Dutjet wand. (4.6 MB)

Video: best practice use of automatic jetting race. (2.5 MB)

Questions:

You can also click on each question below to go to FlyBoss pages with related information.

  1. List the 5 different chemical groups of current (2014) fly treatments, and the 6 different active compounds.
  2. Describe the withholding periods that apply to fly treatments.
  3. What application methods can be used for applying chemicals to control flystrike and which one should only be used for emergency flystrike treatment?
  4. What are the advantages and disadvantages of hand jetting compare to using an automatic jetting race?
  5. Where must the operator be in relation to the sheep, to hand jet them properly and what does this necessitate regarding safety?
  6. What pressure must be supplied at the handpiece for effective hand jetting?
  7. Where should a pressure gauge be installed?
  8. What are the three common wands that can be used for hand-jetting, and which of these is the best for overall utility?
  9. When hand jetting, what is a good indicator that the jetting fluid is being applied effectively?
  10. What specific design features of automatic jetting races affect their ability to achieve maximum protection for sheep against flystrike?
  11. Where can you find a reference table on the recommendations for automatic jetting race design and operation?
  12. What checks and adjustments should be done when the first few sheep are jetted through and AJR?
  13. What are advantages and disadvantages of spray-on products?
  14. How are power-assisted applicators useful?
  15. Where must the spray-on be applied to achieve protection?
  16. What should the dose rate of a spray-on be based on?
  17. Can spray-ons also be used to treat struck sheep?
  18. What safety practices should you carry out before, during and after the use of flystrike treatment and prevention chemicals?

 

Answers:

You can also click on each question below to go to FlyBoss pages with related information.

1. List the 5 different chemical groups of current (2014) fly treatments, and the 6 different active compounds.

  • Insect growth regulator (IGR: cyromazine, dicyclanil)
  • Spinosyn (spinosad)
  • Macrocyclic lactone (ML: ivermectin)
  • Synthetic pyrethroid (SP: alpha-cypermethrin)
  • Organophosphate (OP: diazinon)

2. Describe the withholding periods that apply to fly treatments.

  • The Wool Harvesting Interval (WHI) is defined as the time from application of a chemical to when the wool can be harvested to satisfy Australian environmental requirements (also includes crutching).
  • The Wool Rehandling Period is the time between treatment and when wool/sheep can be safely handled without the need for protective clothing.
  • The Meat Withholding Period (WHP) is the time from chemical application to when an animal is slaughtered for domestic use.
  • The Export Slaughter Interval (ESI) is the time from chemical application to when an animal is slaughtered for export.

3. What application methods can be used for applying chemicals to control flystrike and which one should only be used for emergency flystrike treatment?

The most common application methods are hand jetting, automatic jetting races, spray ons and plunge or shower dipping.

Dipping should only be regarded as an emergency flystrike treatment.

4. What are the advantages and disadvantages of hand jetting compare to using an automatic jetting race?

Technique

Advantages

Disadvantages

Hand jetting

  • With good technique, hand jetting is the most thorough long wool flystrike treatment
  • Flystrike protection provided by jetting products is likely to be greater when applied by hand jetting
  • Slow, hard work
  • Thoroughness of the method declines as the operator tires
  • Can leave high residues in the fleece
  • Requires operator to wear good quality, comfortable personal protective equipment
  • Requires access to water, concrete-floored race and good jetting equipment including pump
  • Jetting handpieces vary in their efficiencies
  • Operator must dilute concentrate with water
  • There is a need to dispose of spent/unused jetting fluid

Automatic jetting race

  • Faster than hand jetting
  • Less work for the operator than hand jetting
  • Removes the need for the operator to stand in the race with the sheep
  • If set up and operated efficiently it can allow the operator to stand back from the machine thereby reducing exposure to insecticides
  • Automatic jetting races vary in their efficiencies
  • Requires access to a properly functioning automatic jetting race and adequate pump
  • Automatic jetting races need to be set up and adjusted to the size of the sheep
  • Requires access to water
  • Can leave higher residues in the fleece than hand jetting
  • Operator must dilute insecticide concentrate with water
  • Results in operator exposure to spray when moving stalled sheep
  • There is a need to dispose of spent/unused jetting fluid

 

5. Where must the operator be in relation to the sheep, to hand jet them properly and what does this necessitate regarding safety?

To jet sheep properly the operator must be in the race with the sheep.

As a minimum, they should be wearing waterproof long pants, steel capped gum boots and long sleeve-waterproof gauntlets over overalls. Refer to product labels for specific directions.

6. What pressure must be supplied at the handpiece for effective hand jetting?

The pump must be capable of delivering 700 kPa (100 psi) at the handpiece while still returning enough jetting fluid via the recirculating hose to provide sufficient mixing in the sump. 

7. Where should a pressure gauge be installed?

Installation of an inexpensive pressure gauge fitted in-line at the handpiece provides a convenient way of monitoring pressure at the handpiece. It is impossible to see a gauge at the pump while jetting sheep in the race and the reading may bear no resemblance to the pressure at the handpiece anyway. 

8. What are the three common wands that can be used for hand-jetting, and which of these is the best for overall utility?

There are at least three types of hand jetting wands: a T-bar design, a sickle shaped design and the Dutjet. Each is capable of doing the job but the T-bar and sickle shaped wands have projecting nipples that can snag in the wool. This makes the task more difficult and tires the operator. The T-bar can be manipulated more easily around the horns of merino rams than the other two designs. The sickle-shaped wand can be hung on a fence and the Dutjet is superior for treating long wool sheep. For overall utility the Dutjet is the preferred design.

9. When hand jetting, what is a good indicator that the jetting fluid is being applied effectively?

Thorough jetting of the back of sheep, irrespective of which wand is used, should ensure sufficient fluid is held in the fleece to penetrate to skin level.

The addition of a scourable food dye such as Permicol Blue®, or the use of an indelible pencil can be used to check wetting. If the sheep have been properly jetted, fluid will run around the body and drip from the belly of thoroughly jetted sheep. Proper jetting for body strike protection should provide coverage for the belly, but rams and wethers may require direct treatment of the pizzle area.

10. What specific design features of automatic jetting races affect their ability to achieve maximum protection for sheep against flystrike?

  • Plumbing size
  • Valve type
  • Nozzles
  • Spray bar orientation
  • Spray bar height
  • Flow rates
  • Spray pressure
  • The pump
  • Sheep flow

11. Where can you find a reference table on the recommendations for automatic jetting race design and operation?

On the FlyBoss Automatic jetting races page:

http://www.flyboss.com.au/treatment/choosing-the-right-application-method/jetting/automatic-jetting-races.php

12. What checks and adjustments should be done when the first few sheep are jetted through and AJR?

Adjustments and checks need to be made as the first few sheep are jetted:

  • On an intermittent machine (spray is triggered by each sheep), adjust the triggering arms
  • Adjust the longitudinal spray bars
  • Check that the areas targeted for treatment are wet. Use an indelible pencil.
  • If there is excessive wastage of jetting fluid, the pump pressure may need to be reduced.

13. What are advantages and disadvantages of spray-on products?

Technique

Advantages

Disadvantages

Spray-on

  • Can be used for long wool flystrike prevention
  • Ease of application—can be applied with a power-asisted applicator, which helps ensure consistency and reduces operator fatigue
  • Products ready for direct application so no additional water required
  • Disposal of empty containers only
  • Cost
  • Applicator must be matched to product

 

14. How are power-assisted applicators useful?

Many of these products can be applied using power-assisted (compressed air or LPG gas cylinder) applicators. This assists with consistent delivery of the selected dose, ensures rapid and reliable refilling of the gun and reduces operator fatigue. For smaller flocks the simple manual squeeze type applicators available offer a cheap and easily portable means of application. It is essential that only applicators approved for particular products are used and calibrated according to directions for the product of choice, before being used on the sheep.

15. Where must the spray-on be applied to achieve protection?

 The aim is to achieve total coverage of the areas needing protection (unlike lice backline treatments, flystrike spray-ons do NOT spread and provide protection beyond where they are applied). If two or more bands are applied there should be some overlap.

16. What should the dose rate be based on?

Some products stipulate dose rates based on bodyweight, whereas dose rates for others are based on wool length. In mobs where sheep vary widely in bodyweight, cost savings, more efficient application and reduced residues might be possible if the mob is drafted into several weight classes. Otherwise, it would be prudent to set the dose to the weight of the heaviest sheep in the mob. Similarly, where dose rate is determined by length of wool growth, similar sheep should be drafted into treatment groups. If this is not feasible for mobs with mixed shearings or where unshorn young sheep vary by more than two months in ages it would be prudent to treat according to the longest wool length.

17. Can spray-ons also be used to treat struck sheep?

No. These products are not suitable for the treatment of struck sheep or sheep with soiled crutches. Struck sheep should be drafted off and strikes shorn and treated as recommended with a registered flystrike dressing. Daggy sheep should be lightly crutched to remove faecal material and urine stain prior to treatment.

18. What safety practices should you carry out before, during and after the use of flystrike treatment and prevention chemicals?

Beforehand:

  • Always store chemicals in the original containers and make sure the label is intact. Regularly assess containers to ensure no leakage or corrosion has occurred. 
  • Secure the chemicals from unauthorised access and use. Children and visitors not familiar with the hazards of chemicals should not be able to access them.
  • Read the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS). 
  • Ensure you understand and have emergency procedures defined. This should include a list of emergency contact telephone numbers such as the Poisons Information Centre (131126), your local doctor and the local fire station.

During use:

  • Make sure you are very careful and precise at all times when handling chemicals. Do not cut corners when handling or applying chemicals.
  • Always have appropriate clean-up procedures and equipment ready in case any chemical is spilled.
  • Use soap, water and a towel to wash off any chemical splashes. Not all chemicals are water based and you may need soap to remove them from your equipment and particularly your skin.
  • Be sensible in what you wear when treating sheep for flystrike. Ideally this would include: overalls, waterproof long pants; steel capped gumboots; and, elbow length waterproof gloves. If using products formulated as powders, breathing protection is also recommended.
  • When you are handling concentrates, be extra careful of fumes and splash and wear a face shield and breathing protection.

After use:

  • After use wash all equipment carefully, dry and store safely.
  • Change your clothes when you have finished the chemical work. If you spill a significant volume on your clothes whilst applying chemicals, change clothes immediately.
  • Wash your hands and change out of protective clothing before eating, drinking or smoking.

 


Links to the other FlyBoss online learning topics

  1. Susceptibility
  2. Breeding and selection 
  3. Management 
  4. Treatment (you are currently on this page)
  5. FlyBoss Tools